Collection of Studies on TB Culture and DST Methods

This collection has been compiled by the Culture-based Diagnostics Subgroup of the NDWG.

For further information, please contact: Dr Nicolas Durier or Dr David Moore.

Inventory of culture and DST methods – 31 July 2011 – [Download]

Article List


Bacteriophage Based Assay

Commercial Methods

S Prakash, SK Katiyar, S Purwar, JP Singh. Clinical evaluation of the Mycobacteriophage based assay in rapid detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2009; 27(2): 134-138. [Download]

M. Bonnet, L. Gagnidze, F. Varaine, A. Ramsay, W. Githui, P. J. Guerin. Evaluation of FASTPlaqueTBTM to diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis in a peripheral clinic in Kenya. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2009; 13(9):1112–1118. [Download]

Mariana Piuri, William R. Jacobs Jr., Graham F. Hatfull. Fluoromycobacteriophages for Rapid, Specific, and Sensitive Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS ONE, 2009, 4(3): e4870, pp 1-12. [Download]

A. P. Trollip, H. Albert, R. Mole, T. Marshall, G. van Cutsem, D. Coetzee. Performance of FASTPlaqueTB™ and a modified protocol in a high HIV prevalence community in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2009;13(6):791–793. [Download]

D Biswas, A Deb, P Gupta, R Prasad, KS Negi. Evaluation of the usefulness of phage amplification technology in the diagnosis of patients with paucibacillary Tuberculosis. Indian journal of Medical Microbiology, 2008; 26(1): 75-78. [Download]

N. Kiraz, L. Et,Y. Akgun,N. Kasifoglu, A. Kiremitci. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum specimens using the FASTPlaqueTB test. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2007;11(8):904–908. [Download]

H Albert, A P Trollip, T Seaman, C Abrahams, R J Mole, A Jordaan, T Victor, E Hoosain. Evaluation of a rapid screening test for rifampicin resistance in re-treatment tuberculosis patients in the Eastern Cape. S Afr Med J, 2007; 97: 858-863. [Download]

Richard Mole, Andre Trollip, Celeste Abrahams, Marlein Bosman and Heidi Albert. Improved contamination control for a rapid phagebased rifampicin resistance test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2007; 56: 1334–1339. [Download]

H. Albert, A.P. Trollip, K. Linley, C. Abrahams, T. Seaman and R.J. Mole. Development of an antimicrobial formulation for control of specimen-related contamination in phage-based diagnostic testing for tuberculosis. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2007; 103: 892–899. [Download]

Purabi Barman and Deepa Gadre. A Study of Phage Based Diagnostic Technique For Tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 2007; 54: 36-40. [Download]

Madhukar Pai, Shriprakash Kalantria, Lisa Pascopellad, Lee W. Rileya, Arthur L. Reingolda. Bacteriophage-based assays for the rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. Journal of Infection, 2005; 51: 175 –187. [Download]

H. Albert. Economic analysis of the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa: incorporation of a new rapid test, FASTPlaqueTB, into the diagnostic algorithm. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2004; 8(2):240–247. [Download]

T. Butt, R. N. Ahmad, R. K. Afzal, A. Mahmood, M. Anwar. Rapid Detection of Rifampicin Susceptibility of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Sputum Specimens by Mycobacteriophage Assay. JPMA, 2004; 54 (7):379-382. [Download]

H. Albert, A. Trollip, T. Seaman, R. J. Mole. Simple, phage-based (FASTPlaque) technology to determine rifampicin resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from sputum. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2004;8(9):1114–1119. [Download]

O. Kisa, A. Albay, O. Bedir, O. Baylan, L. Doganci. Evaluation of FASTPlaqueTB-RIF™ for determination of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2003;7(3):284–288. [Download]

Tracy Seaman, Andre Trollip, Richard Mole, Heidi Albert. The use of a novel phage-based technology as a practical tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2003; 2 (2): 40–45. [Download]

Leonid Heifets. Diagnostic tests: what is rapid and what is inexpensive? The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2003; 7(9):907–909. [Download]

Ayman MohamedMarei, Eman Mohamed El-Behedy, Heba Ali Mohtady and Afify Fahmy. Evaluation of a rapid bacteriophage-based method for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2003; 52: 331–335. [Download]

Fernando Alcaide, Nuria Galí, Jose´ Domínguez, Pilar Berlanga, Silvia Blanco, Pilar Oru´s, and Rogelio Martín. Usefulness of a New Mycobacteriophage-Based Technique for Rapid Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003; 41(7): 2867–2871. [Download]

Albay A, Kisa O, Baylan O, Doganci L. The evaluation of FASTPlaqueTB for the rapid diagnosis of Tuberculosis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2003; 46: 211-215. [Download]

Howard Takiff. In search of rapid diagnosis and drug-resistance detection tools: Is the FASTPlaqueTB test the answer? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2002;6(7):560–561. [Download]

S Shenai, C Rodrigues, AP Mehta. Evaluation of a new Phage Amplification technology for rapid diagnosis of Tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2002; 20(4): 194-199. [Download]

R. Muzaffar,S. Batool, F. Aziz, A. Naqvi, A. Rizvi. Evaluation of the FASTPlaqueTB assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2002;6(7):635–640. [Download]

H. Albert, A. Heydenrych, R. Brookes, R. J. Mole, B. Harley, E. Subotsky, R. Henry, V. Azevedo. Performance of a rapid phage-based test, FASTPlaqueTB™, to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis from sputum specimens in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2002;6(6):529–537. [Download]

H. Albert, A. P. Trollip, R. J. Mole, S. J. B. Hatch, L. Blumberg. Rapid indication of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from liquid cultures using FASTPlaqueTB-RIF™, a manual phage-based test. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2002;6(6):523–528. [Download]

A Krishnamurthy,C Rodrigues, AP Mehta. Rapid detection of Rifampicin resistance in M. Tuberculosis by Phage assay. Indian journal of Medical Microbiology, 2002; 20 (4): 211-214. [Download]

H. Albert, A. Heydenrych, R. Mole, A. Trollip,L. Blumberg. Evaluation of FASTPlaqueTB-RIF™, a rapid, manual test for the determination of rifampicin resistance from Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2001;5(10):906–911. [Download]

Trollip A. Albert H. Maskell T. Bacteriophage-based technologies for the rapid diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing of Tuberculosis. Am Clin Lab, 2001;20(9):39-42. [Download]

Non Commercial Methods

Agustina I. de la Iglesia, Emma J. Stella, and Héctor R. Morbidoni. Comparison of the Performances of Two In-House Rapid Methods for Antitubercular Drug Susceptibility Testing. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009; 53(2) : 808–810. [Download]

Hamidou Traore, Sam Ogwang, Kim Mallard, Moses L Joloba, Francis Mumbowa, Kalpana Narayan, Susan Kayes, Edward C Jones Lopez, Peter G Smith, Jerrold J Ellner, Roy D Mugerwa, Kathleen D Eisenach and Ruth McNerney. Low-cost rapid detection of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis using bacteriophage in Kampala, Uganda. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 2007; 6(1): 1-6. [Download]

Jose´ A. Chauca,Juan-Carlos Palomino and Humberto Guerral. Evaluation of rifampicin and isoniazid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a mycobacteriophage D29-based assay. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2007;56: 360–364. [Download]

Ruth McNerney, Kim Mallard, Honorathy M. R. Urassa, Eshetu Lemma,and Helen D. Donoghue. Colorimetric Phage-Based Assay for Detection of Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007; 45(4): 1330–1332. [Download]

Sergio Luis Yzquierdo, Dihadenys Lemus, Miguel Echemendia, Ernesto Montoro, Ruth McNerney, Anandi Martin and Juan Carlos Palomino. Evaluation of phage assay for rapid phenotypic detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials., 2006; 5(11): 1-5. [Download]

N. Galı, J. Domı´nguez, S. Blanco, C. Prat, F.Alcaide, P. Coll, V. Ausina, and the Mycobacteria Research Group of Barcelona. Use of a Mycobacteriophage-Based Assay for Rapid Assessment Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates to Isoniazid and Influence of Resistance Level on Assay Performance. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(1): 201–205. [Download]

P. A. da Silva, M. M. S. Boffo, I. G. De Mattos, A. B. S. Silva, J. C. Palomino, A. Martin and H. E. Takiff. Comparison of redox and D29 phage methods for detection of isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2006; 12(3): 293–296. [Download]

Norberto Sı´mboli, Howard Takiff, Ruth McNerney,Beatriz Lo´pez, Anandi Martin, Juan Carlos Palomino, Lucı´a Barrera, and Viviana Ritacco. In-House Phage Amplification Assay Is a Sound Alternative for Detecting Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Low-Resource Settings. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2005; 49(1): 425–427. [Download]

N. Galí, J. Domínguez, S. Blanco, C. Prat, M. D. Quesada, L. Matas, and V. Ausina. Utility of an In-House Mycobacteriophage-Based Assay for Rapid Detection of Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41(6): 2647–2649. [Download]

C. Mani, N. Selvakumar, V. Kumar, S. Narayanan, P. R. Narayanan. Comparison of DNA sequencing, PCR-SSCP and PhaB assays with indirect sensitivity testing for detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(7):652–659. [Download]

D. J. Park, F. A. Drobniewski, A. Meyer,and S. M. Wilson. Use of a Phage-Based Assay for Phenotypic Detection of Mycobacteria Directly from Sputum. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003; 41(2). [Download]

Hu Z, Pang M, Jin A. Application of rapid detection for Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phage splitting assay. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 2001 ; 24 (10):611-613. (article in Chinese) [Link]

R. McNerney, P. Kiepiela, K. S. Bishop,P. M. Nye,N. G. Stoker. Rapid screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to rifampicin and streptomycin. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2000;4(1):69–75. [Download]

J. Eltringham, F. A. Drobniewski, J. A. Mangan, et al. Evaluation of Reverse Transcription-PCR and a Bacteriophage-Based Assay for Rapid Phenotypic Detection of Rifampin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(11):3524-3527. [Download]

Stuart Mark Wilson, Zubaida Al-suwaidi, Ruth McNerney, John Porter and Francis Drobniewski. Evaluation of a new rapid bacteriophage- based method for the drug susceptibility testing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Nature Medicine, 1997;3(4): 465-468. [Link]

William R. Jacobs Jr, Raul G. Barletta, Rupa Udani,John Chan, Gary Kalkut, Gabriel Sosne, Tobias Kieser, Gary J. Sarkis, Graham F. Hatfull, Barry R. Bloom. Rapid Assessment of Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Means of Luciferase Reporter Phages. Science 260, 1993; (5109): 819–822. [Download]

General

E. J. Stella, A. I. De La Iglesia1, H. R. Morbidoni. Mycobacteriophages as versatile tools for genetic manipulation of mycobacteria and development of simple methods for diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases. Revista Argentina de Microbiología, 2009; 41: 45-55. [Download]

Carlos Acuna-Villaorduna, Anna Vassall, German Henostroza, Carlos Seas,Humberto Guerra, Lucy Vasquez, Nora Morcillo, Juan Saravia, Richard O’Brien, Mark D. Perkins, Jane Cunningham, Luis Llanos-Zavalaga, and Eduardo Gotuzzo . Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Introduction of Rapid, Alternative Methods to Identify Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Middle-Income Countries. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2008; 47:487–95. [Download]

Shriprakash Kalantri ,Madhukar Pai1 ,Lisa Pascopella, Lee Riley and Arthur Reingold. Bacteriophage- based tests for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2005; 5:59: 1-13. [Download]

Otive-Igbuzor, E.J. Phage Amplification technology and anti-tuberculous drug susceptibility testing in Nigeria. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 2003;4 (2): 67-78. [Download]

McNernery R. Phage tests for diagnostic and drug susceptibility testing. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 2002; 6 (12): 1129-1130. [Download]

Albert H., Muzaffar R., Mole R. & Trollip A. Use of FASTPlaqueTB for diagnosis of TB in low income countries. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis, 2002; 6 (12): 1130-1131. [Download]

Otive-Igbuzor, Ejiro.J. Phage Amplification technology in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: applicability in Nigerian laboratories. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 2002; 3 (2): 55-63. [Download]

Mole, RJ. and Maskell, TWO’C. Phage as a diagnostic – the use of phage in TB diagnosis. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 2001; 76: 683-688. [Link]

R. McNerney. TB: the return of the phage. A review of fifty years of Mycobacteriophage research. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 1993;3(3):179–184. [Download]


Liquid Culture

Commercial Methods – BACTEC and MGIT

Pamela Chedore, Lina Bertucci,Joyce Wolfe, Meenu Sharma, and Frances Jamieson. Potential for Erroneous Results Indicating Resistance When Using the Bactec MGIT 960 System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2010; 48(1):300–301. [Download]

Yanina Balabanova , Francis Drobniewski1, Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Annika Kruuner, Nadezhda Malomanova, Tatyana Simak, Nailya Ilyina, Svetlana Zakharova, Natalya Lebedeva, Heather L. Alexander, Rick O’Brien, Hojoon Sohn, Anastasia Shakhmistova, Ivan Fedorin. An Integrated Approach to Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Multidrug Resistance Using Liquid Culture and Molecular Methods in Russia. PLoS ONE, www.plosone.org, 2009, 4(9): e7129, pp 1-9. [Download]

S.-Y. Grace Lin, Edward Desmond, Donald Bonato, Wendy Gross, and Salman Siddiqi. Multicenter Evaluation of Bactec MGIT 960 System for Second-Line Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2009; 47(11): 3630–3634. [Download]

Burkhard Springer, Katja Lucke,Romana Calligaris-Maibach, Claudia Ritter,and Erik C. Bo¨ttger. Quantitative Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Use of MGIT 960 and EpiCenter Instrumentation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47(6): 1773–1780. [Download]

C Rodrigues, S Shenai, M Sadani, N Sukhadia, M Jani, K Ajbani, A Sodha and A Mehta. Evaluation Of The Bactec Mgit 960 Tb System For Recovery and Identification of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in a High Through Put Tertiary Care Centre. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2009; 27(3): 217-21. [Download]

Anandi Martin,Andrea von Groll, Krista Fissette, Juan Carlos Palomino, Francis Varaine and Franc¸oise Portaels. Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to Second-Line Drugs by Use of the Manual Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008; 46(12): 3952–3956. [Download]

arinus Barnard, Heidi Albert, Gerrit Coetzee, Richard O’Brien, and Marlein E. Bosman. Rapid Molecular Screening for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in a High-Volume Public Health Laboratory in South Africa. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2008; 177:787–792. [Download]

Puneet Aggarwal, Archana Singal, Sambit Nath Bhattacharya and Kiran Mishra. Comparison of the radiometric BACTEC 460 TB culture system and Löwenstein–Jensen medium for the isolation of Mycobacteria in cutaneous tuberculosis and their drug susceptibility pattern. International Journal of Dermatology, 2008; 47: 681–687. [Link]

Chiyoji Abe, Ikuo Kobayashi, Satoshi Mitarai, Masako Wada,Yoshiko Kawabe, Tetsuya Takashima, Katsuhiro Suzuki, Li-Hwei Sng, Suxing Wang, Hla Hla Htay and Hideo Ogata. Biological and Molecular Characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Clinical Isolates with Low-Level Resistance to Isoniazid in Japan. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008; 46 (7): 2263–2268. [Download]

Tsi-Shu Huang,Yung-Ching Liu,Hui-Zin Tu, Cheng-Len Sy, Yao-Shen Chen, and Bao-Chen Chen. Rapid Purity Check Method for Susceptibility Testing of M. tuberculosis Complex with the MGIT 960 System. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, 2007; 37(4):323-329. [Download]

Montserrat Garrigo´, Lina Marcela Arago´n, Fernando Alcaide, Sonia Borrell, Eugenia Carden˜osa, Juan Jose´ Gala´n, Julia´n Gonzalez-Martı´n, Nuria Martin-Casabona, Carmen Moreno, Margarita Salvado, and Pere Coll. Multicenter Laboratory Evaluation of the MB/BacT Mycobacterium Detection System and the BACTEC MGIT 960 System in Comparison with the BACTEC 460TB System for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007; 45(6): 1766–1770. [Download]

Luciano Mengatto, Yosena Chiani, María Susana Imaz. Evaluation of rapid alternative methods for drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 2006;101(5): 535-542. [Download]

Annika Kru¨u¨ner, Malcolm D. Yates, and Francis A. Drobniewski. Evaluation of MGIT 960-Based Antimicrobial Testing and Determination of Critical Concentrations of First- and Second-Line Antimicrobial Drugs with Drug-Resistant Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(3): 811–818. [Download]

Sabine Ru¨sch-Gerdes,Gaby E. Pfyffer, Manuel Casal, Maureen Chadwick,and Salma Siddiqi. Multicenter Laboratory Validation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 Technique for Testing Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Classical Second-Line Drugs and Newer Antimicrobials. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(3): 688–692. [Download]

Doris Hillemann,Elvira Richter, and Sabine Ru¨sch-Gerdes. Use of the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 Automated System for Recovery of Mycobacteria from 9, 558 Extrapulmonary Specimens, Including Urine Samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(11): 4014–4017. [Download]

Claudio Piersimoni, Armando Olivieri, Luca Benacchio and Claudio Scarparo. Current Perspectives on Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex: the Automated Nonradiometric Systems. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(1): 20–28. [Download]

Tsi-Shu Huang, Yao-Shen Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee,Hui-Zin Tu, and Yung-Ching Liu. Preservation of Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Directly from MGIT Culture Tubes. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, 2005; 35(4): 455-458. [Download]

C. M. S. Giampaglia, M. C. Martins, V. T. G. Inumaru, I. V. Butuem, M. A. S. Telles. Evaluation of a rapid differentiation test for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by selective inhibition with nitrobenzoic acid and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2005; 9(2):206–209. [Download]

Claudio Scarparo, Paolo Ricordi, Giuliana Ruggiero, and Paola Piccoli. Evaluation of the Fully Automated BACTEC MGIT 960 System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Ethambutol and Comparison with the Radiometric BACTEC 460TB Method. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(3): 1109–1114. [Download]

M. Cruciani, C. Scarparo, M. Malena, O. Bosco, G. Serpelloni, and C. Mengoli. Meta-Analysis of BACTEC MGIT 960 and BACTEC 460 TB, with or without Solid Media, for Detection of Mycobacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(5): 2321–2325. [Download]

Isik Somuncu Johansena, Vibeke Østergaard Thomsena, Merja Marjama¨kib, Anaida Sosnovskajac, Bettina Lundgrend. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2004; 50: 103–107. [Link]

Tsi-Shu Huang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Hui-Zin Tu, Wen-Kuei Huang, Yao-Shen Chen, Chung-Kai Huang, Shue-Ren Wann, Hsi-Hsun Lin and Yung-Ching Liu. Use of MGIT 960 for rapid quantitative measurement of the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to ciprofloxacin and ethionamide. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2004; 53: 600–603. [Download]

Cynthia A. Sanders, Rachel R. Nieda, and Edward P. Desmond. Validation of the Use of Middlebrook 7H10 Agar, BACTEC MGIT 960, and BACTEC 460 12B Media for Testing the Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Levofloxacin. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(11): 5225–5228. [Download]

Akos Somoskovi,Qunfeng Song, Judit Mester, Charise Tanner, Yvonne M. Hale, Linda M. Parsons, and Max Salfinger. Use of Molecular Methods To Identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) and Other Mycobacterial Species and To Detect Rifampin Resistance in MTBC Isolates following Growth Detection with the BACTEC MGIT 960 System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003; 41(7): 2822–2826. [Download]

Kati Adjers-Koskela and Marja-Leena Katila. Susceptibility Testing with the Manual Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) and the MGIT 960 System Provides Rapid and Reliable Verification of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003; 41(3): 1235–1239. [Download]

Gaby E. Pfyffer, Frantiska Palicova, and Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes. Testing of Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide with the Nonradiometric BACTEC MGIT 960 System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002; 40(5):1670–1674. [Download]

Pascale Bemer,Frantiska Palicova, Sabine Ru¨sch-Gerdes,Henri B. Drugeon,and Gaby E. Pfyffer. Multicenter Evaluation of Fully Automated BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 System for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002; 40(1): 150–154. [Download]

Enrico Tortoli, Marta Benedetti,Alessandra Fontanelli, and M. Tullia Simonetti. Evaluation of Automated BACTEC MGIT 960 System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Four Major Antituberculous Drugs: Comparison with the Radiometric BACTEC 460TB Method and the Agar Plate Method of Proportion. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002; 40(2): 607–610. [Download]

Tsi-Shu Huang,Hui-Zin Tu , Susan Shin-Jung Lee , Wen-Kuei Huang, and Yung-Ching Liu. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to First-Line Drugs: Comparisons of the MGIT 960 and BACTEC 460 Systems. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, 2002; 32(2): 142-147. [Download]

Lorenz Leitritz, So¨Ren Schubert, Bettina Bu¨Cherl, Adelheid Masch, Ju¨Rgen Heesemann, And Andreas Roggenkamp. Evaluation of BACTEC MGIT 960 and BACTEC 460TB Systems for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Clinical Specimens of a University Hospital with Low Incidence of Tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2001; 39(10): 3764–3767. [Download]

Ivan Bastian, Leen Rigouts, Juan Carlos Palomino and Francoise Portaels. Kanamycin Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube and a Colorimetric Method. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2001; 45(6): 1934–1936. [Download]

Fausta Ardito, Brunella Posteraro, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Stefania Zanetti, and Giovanni Fadda. Evaluation of BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT 960) Automated System for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2001; 39(12): 4440–4444. [Download]

Margaret M. Hannan,Edward P. Desmond,Glenn P. Morlock, Gerald H. Mazurek, and Jack T. Crawford. Pyrazinamide-Monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the United States. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2001; 39(2): 647–650. [Download]

Vera Goloubeva, Maryvonne Lecocq, Piotr Lassowsky, Francine Matthys, Francoise Portaels, and Ivan Bastian. Evaluation of Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube for Direct and Indirect Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Respiratory Specimens in a Siberian Prison Hospital. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2001; 39(4): 1501–1505. [Download]

A´Kos Somosko¨ Vi, Csaba Ko¨Dmo¨ N, A´ Kos Lantos, Zolta´N Ba´ Rtfai, Lilla Tama´ Si, Judit Fu¨ Zy, And Pa´L Magyar. Comparison of Recoveries of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Automated BACTEC MGIT 960 System, the BACTEC 460 TB System, and Lo¨wenstein-Jensen Medium. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(6): 2395–2397. [Download]

Jeff D. Harvell W. Keith Hadley, and Valerie L. Ng. Increased Sensitivity of the BACTEC 460 Mycobacterial Radiometric Broth Culture System Does Not Decrease the Number of Respiratory Specimens Required for a Definitive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(10): 3608–3611. [Download]

Fernando Alcaide,Miguel Angel Beni´Tez,Josep M. Escriba`, and Rogelio Marti´N. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 and the MB/BacT Systems for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Clinical Specimens and for Species Identification by DNA AccuProbe. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(1): 398–401. [Download]

L. Heifets, T. Linder, T. Sanchez,D. Spencer, and J. Brennan. Two Liquid Medium Systems, Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube and MB Redox Tube, for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolation from Sputum Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(3): 1227–1230. [Download]

Gaby E. Pfyffer,Donald A. Bonato,Adeleh Ebrahimzadeh,Wendy Gross, Jacqueline Hotaling, John Kornblum,Adalbert Laszlo,Glenn Roberts, Max Salfinger,Franziska Wittwer, and Salman Siddiqi. Multicenter Laboratory Validation of Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against Classical Second-Line and Newer Antimicrobial Drugs by Using the Radiometric BACTEC 460 Techniques and the Proportion Method with Solid Media. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(1): 3179–3186. [Download]

Bruce A. Hanna, Adeleh Ebrahimzadeh, L. Bruce Elliott, Margie A. Morgan, Susan M. Novak, Sabine Rusch-Gerdes, Millie Acio, Denise F. Dunbar T. Michele Holmes, Charles H. Rexer, Chiminyan Savthyakumar, and Ann M. Vannier. Multicenter Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 System for Recovery of Mycobacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(3): 748–752. [Download]

Sabine Ru¨ Sch-Gerdes, Cornelia Domehl, Giampietro Nardi, Maria Rita Gismondo, Hans-Martin Welscher, and Gaby E. Pfyffer. Multicenter Evaluation of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to First-Line Drugs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(1): 45–48. [Download]

Enrico Tortoli, Paola Cichero, Claudio Piersimoni, M. Tullia Simonetti, Giampietro Gesu, and Domenico Nista. Use of BACTEC MGIT 960 for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Clinical Specimens: Multicenter Study. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(11): 3578–3582. [Download]

J. C. Palomino, H. Traore, K. Fissette, F. Portaels. Evaluation of Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 1999; 3(4):344–348. [Download]

Robert S. Wallis, Shripad Patil, Seon-Hee Cheon, Kay Edmonds, Manijeh Phillips, Mark D. Perkins,Moses Joloba, Alice Namale, John L. Johnson, Lucileia Teixeira, Reynaldo Dietze, Salman Siddiqi, Roy D. Mugerwa, Kathleen Eisenach and Jerrold J. Ellner. Drug Tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1999; 43(11): 2600–2606. [Download]

W. K. Chew, R. M. Lasaitis, F. A. Schio And G. L. Gilbert. Clinical evaluation of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) compared with radiometric (Bactec) and solid media for isolation of Mycobacterium species. J. Med. Microbiol., 1998;47 : 821-827. [Download]

Mark N. Lobato, Ann M. Loeffler, Karen Furst, Barbara Cole and Philip C. Hopewell. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Gastric Aspirates Collected from Children: Hospitalization Is Not Necessary. Pediatrics, 1998; 102(4). http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/102/4/e40. [Download]

Enrico Tortoli, Federica Lavinia, And M. Tullia Simonetti. Early Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BACTEC Cultures by Ligase Chain Reaction. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1998; 36(9): 2791–2792. [Download]

J. C. Palomino and F. Portaels. Effects of Decontamination Methods and Culture Conditions on Viability of Mycobacterium ulcerans in the BACTEC System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1998; 36(2): 402–408. [Download]

G. Abate, H. Mi lner, O. Ahmed, S. E. Hoffner. Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from re-treatment cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia: susceptibility to first-line and alternative drugs. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 1998; 2(7):580–584. [Download]

50. Gaby E. Pfyffer,Hans-Martin Welscher,Pascale Kissling,Cornelia Cieslak, Manuel J. Casal,Juan Gutierrez, And Sabine Ru¨Sch-Gerdes. Comparison of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) with Radiometric and Solid Culture for Recovery of Acid-Fast Bacilli. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1997; 35(2): 364–368. [Download]

Moise´S Palaci, Suely Yoko Mizuka Ueki, Daisy Nakamura Sato, Maria Alice Da Silva Telles, Melissa Curcio, and Eny Aparecida Matheus Silva. Evaluation of Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube for Recovery and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Respiratory Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1996; 34(3): 762–764. [Download]

ML Wilson, BL Stone, MV Hildred, et al. Comparison of Recovery Rates for Mycobacteria from BACTEC 12B Vials, Middlebrook 7H11-Selective 7H11 Biplates, and Lowenstein-Jensen Slants in a Public Health Mycobacteriology Laboratory. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1995; 33(9): 2516–2518. [Download]

Sven E. Hoffner, Stefan B. Svenson, Renee Norberg, Francisco Dias, Solomon Ghebremichael, and Gunilla Kallenius. Biochemical Heterogeneity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates in Guinea-Bissau. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1993; 31(8): 2215-2217. [Download]

C. E. Stager, J. P. Libonati, S. H. Siddiqi, J. R. Davis,Lt , N. M. Hooper, J. F. Baker, and M.E. Carter. Role of Solid Media When Used in Conjunction with the BACTEC System for Mycobacterial Isolation and Identification. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1991; 29(1): 154-157. [Download]

Peter Anargyros, T David , S. J. Astill, and Irene S. L. Lim. Comparison of Improved BACTEC and Lowenstein-Jensen Media for Culture of Mycobacteria from Clinical Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1990; 28(6):1288-1291. [Download]

Lennart E. Nilsson,Sven E. Hoffner, and Steffan Ansthn. Rapid Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Bioluminescence Assay of Mycobacterial ATP. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1988; 32(8): 1208-1212. [Download]

Jean M. Kirihara, Sharon L. Hillier, T and Marie B. Coyle. Improved Detection Times for Mycobacterium avium Complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the BACTEC Radiometric System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1985; 22(5): 841-845. [Download]

Glenn D. Roberts,Norman L. Goodman, Leonid Heifets, Howard W. Larsh, Thomas H. Lindner, J. Kenneth Mcclatchy, Michael R. Mcginnis, Salman H. Siddiqi, and Pamela Wright. Evaluation of the BACTEC Radiometric Method for Recovery of Mycobacteria and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Acid-Fast Smear-Positive Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1983; 18(3): 689-696. [Download]

Salman H. Siddiqi, T Joseph P. Libonati and Gardner Middlebrook. Evaluation of a Rapid Radiometric Method for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1981; 13(5): 908-912. [Download]

Commercial Methods – MB/BacT

Muhammad Bakari, Robert D Arbeit, Lillian Mtei, Johnson Lyimo, Richard Waddell, Mecky Matee, Bernard F Cole, Susan Tvaroha, C Robert Horsburgh, Hanna Soini, Kisali Pallangyo and C Fordham von Reyn. Basis for treatment of tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients in Tanzania: the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2008, 8(32): http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/8/32. [Download]

Montserrat Garrigo´,Lina Marcela Arago´n, Fernando Alcaide,Sonia Borrell,Eugenia Carden˜osa, Juan Jose´ Gala´n,Julia´n Gonzalez-Martı´n,Nuria Martin-Casabona,Carmen Moreno, Margarita Salvado,and Pere Coll. Multicenter Laboratory Evaluation of the MB/BacT Mycobacterium Detection System and the BACTEC MGIT 960 System in Comparison with the BACTEC 460TB System for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007; 45(6): 1766–1770. [Download]

Claudio Piersimoni, Armando Olivieri, Luca Benacchio and Claudio Scarparo. Current Perspectives on Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex: the Automated Nonradiometric Systems. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(1): 20–28. [Download]

Pascale Bemer,Thomas Bodmer,uerg Munzinger,Monique Perrin, Ve´ronique Vincent, and Henri Drugeon. Multicenter Evaluation of the MB/BACT System for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(3):1030–1034. [Download]

Angela Maria Werneck Barreto, Joselba Borges Melo Araújo, Reginalda Ferreira de Melo Medeiros, Paulo César de Souza Caldas. Evaluation of Indirect Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the First- and Second-line, and Alternative Drugs by the Newer MB/BacT System. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 2003;98(6): 827-830. [Download]

Fernando Alcaide,Miguel Angel Beni´Tez,Josep M. Escriba`, and Rogelio Marti´N. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 and the MB/BacT Systems for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Clinical Specimens and for Species Identification by DNA AccuProbe. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(1): 398–401. [Download]

Francesca Brunello and Roberta Fontana. Reliability of the MB/BacT System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates to Antituberculous Drugs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(2):872–873. [Download]

Maria S. Di´Az-Infantes,Mari´A J. Ruiz-Serrano,Luci´A Marti´Nez-Sa´Nchez, Arturo Ortega and Emilio Bouza. Evaluation of the MB/BacT Mycobacterium Detection System for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2000; 38(5): 1988–1989. [Download]

Andreas Roggenkamp, Mathias W. Hornef, Adelheid Masch, Bettina Aigner, Ingo B. Autenrieth, and Ju¨Rgen Heesemann. Comparison of MB/BacT and BACTEC 460 TB Systems for Recovery of Mycobacteria in a Routine Diagnostic Laboratory. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(11): 3711–3712 Vol. 37, No. 11. [Download]

Francesca Brunello, Flavio Favari, and Roberta Fontana. Comparison of the MB/BacT and BACTEC 460 TB Systems for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Various Clinical Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(4): 1206–1209. [Download]

Carmen Nogales, Samuel Bernal, Mónica Chávez, et al. Comparison of the MB/BacT and BACTEC 460 TB Systems. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(10): 3432–3433. [Download]

Commercial Methods – BacT/ALERT

Jim Werngren, Lisbeth Klintz, and Sven E. Hoffner. Evaluation of a Novel Kit for Use with the BacT/ALERT 3D System for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(6):2130–2132. [Download]

Commercial Methods – MB-Check

Chiyoji Abe, Sumiko Hosojima, Yutaka Fukasawa, Yuko Kazumi, Mitsuyoshi Takahashi, Kazue Hirano, And Toru Mori. Comparison of MB-Check, BACTEC, and Egg-Based Media for Recovery of Mycobacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1992; 30(4): 878-881. [Download]

Commercial Methods – MB Redox

L. Heifets, T. Linder, T. Sanchez,D. Spencer ,and J. Brennan. Two Liquid Medium Systems, Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube and MB Redox Tube, for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolation from Sputum Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(3): 1227–1230. [Download]

Emmanuelle Cambau, Claudine Wichlacz, Chantal Truffot-Pernot, and Vincent Jarlier. Evaluation of the New MB Redox System for Detection of Growth of Mycobacteria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(6): 2013–2015. [Download]

General

Sanne C van Kampen, Richard M Anthony and Paul R Klatser. The realistic performance achievable with mycobacterial automated culture systems in high and low prevalence settings. BMC Infectious Diseases 2010, 10:93, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471- 2334/10/93. [Download]

R. Pradeep, J. Meecham Jones, and M. Logan. Increased Incidence of Non Tuberculous Mycobateria in Gloucestershire Region − Is Liquid Culture to Blame? Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2009; 179:A5270, Internet address: www.atsjournals.org. [Download]

R. M. Anthony, F. G. J. Cobelens, A. Gebhard P. R. Klatser, R. Lumb, S. Rüsch-Gerdes and D. van Soolingen. Liquid culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: proceed, but with caution. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis., 2009;13(9):1051–1053. [Download]

S.R. Ritchi, A.C. Harrison, R.H. Vaughan, L. Calder and A.J. Morris. New recommendations for duration of respiratory isolation based on time to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid culture. Eur Respir J, 2007;30: 501–507. [Download]


Nitrate Reductase Assay

Non Commercial Methods

M. L. Shikama, R. Ferro e Silva, G. Villela, D. N. Sato, M. C. Martins, C. M. S. Giampaglia,
R. F. A. M. da Silva, P. Ferro e Silva, M. A. da Silva Telles, A. Martin and J. C. Palomino. Multicentre study of nitrate reductase assay for rapid detection of rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2009;13(3):377–380. [Download]

Maria de Lourdes Shikama, Regina Ruivo Ferro E. Silva, Maria Conceic Martins, Carmen Maria Saraiva Giampaglia , Rosangela Siqueira Oliveira, Rosmari F. A. M. Silva1, Paula Ferro E. Silva, Maria Alice da Silva Telles, Anandi Martin and Juan Carlos Palomino. Rapid detection of resistant tuberculosis by nitrate reductase assay performed in three settings in Brazil. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2009; 64: 794–796. [Download]

Rose A. Devasia, Amondrea Blackman, Carolyn May, Svetlana Eden, Teresa Smith, Nancy Hooper, Fernanda Maruri, Charles Stratton, Ayumi Shintani and Timothy R. Sterling. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an assessment of MGIT 960, MODS and nitrate reductase assay and fluoroquinolone cross-resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2009; 63: 1173–1178. [Download]

Freddie Bwanga, Sven Hoffner, Melles Haile and Moses L Joloba. Direct susceptibility testing for multi drug resistant tuberculosis: A meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Disease, 2009; 9:67doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-67. [Download]

Dissou Affolabi, Mathieu Odoun, N_Dira Sanoussi, Anandi Martin,Juan Carlos Palomino, Luc Kestens, Se´verin Anagonou, and Francoise Portaels. Rapid and Inexpensive Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the Nitrate Reductase Assay Using Liquid Medium and Direct Application to Sputum Samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008; 46(10): 3243–3245. [Download]

Karine O. Sanchotene, Andrea von Groll1, Daniela Ramos, Ana B. Scholante, Gunther. Honscha, Mariana Valença, Carlos J. Scaini, Pedro E.A. da Silva. Comparative Evaluation of the Nitrate Reductase Assay and the Resazurin Microtitre Assay for Drug Susceptibility Testing Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis against First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 2008;39:16-20. [Download]

Dissou Affolabi, N’Dira Sanoussi, Mathieu Odoun, Anandi Martin, Louis Koukpemedji, Juan Carlos Palomino, Luc Kestens, Severin Anagonou and Franc¸oise Portaels. Rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Cotono (Benin) using two low-cost colorimetric methods: resazurin and nitrate reductase assays. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2008; 57: 1024–1027. [Download]

Anandi Martin, Stefan Panaiotov, Francoise Portaels, Sven Hoffner, Juan Carlos Palomino and Kristian Angeby. The nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2008; 62: 56–64. [Download]

Dissou Affolabi, Mathieu Odoun, Anandi Martin, Juan Carlos Palomino, Severin Anagonou,and Francoise Portaels. Evaluation of Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampin Resistance by a Nitrate Reductase Assay Applied to Sputum Samples in Cotonou, Benin. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007; 45(7): 2123–2125. [Download]

Dihadenys Lemus, Ernesto Montoro, Miguel Echemendia, Anandi Martin, Francoise Portaels and Juan Carlos Palomino. Nitrate reductase assay for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: simple and inexpensive method for low-resource laboratories. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2006; 55: 861–863. [Download]

A Poorjay, G Nataraj, S Kanade, P Mehta, S Baveja. Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibiltiy testing of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: its utility in resource poor settings. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2006, 24(4): 268-272. [Download]

Sunil Sethi, Sachin Sharma, S.K. Sharma, S.K. Meharwal, S.K. Jindal & Meera Sharma. Drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to primary antitubercular drugs by nitrate reductase assay. Indian J Med Res, 2006; 120: 468-471. [Download]

H. Syre, H. Valvatne, P. Sandven and H. M. S. Grewal. Evaluation of the nitrate-based colorimetric method for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to streptomycin and ethambutol in liquid cultures. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2006; 57 : 987–991. [Download]

M. Kumar, I. A. Khan, V. Verma, G. N. Qazi. Microplate nitrate reductase assay versus Alamar Blue assay for MIC determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2005;9(8):939–941. [Download]

Ernesto Montoro, Dihadenys Lemus, Miguel Echemendia, Anandi Martin, Francoise Portaels and Juan Carlos Palomino. Comparative evaluation of the nitrate reduction assay, the MTT test, and the resazurin microtitre assay for drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2005; 55: 500–505. [Download]

Anandi Martin, Juan Carlos Palomino, and Francoise Portaels. Rapid Detection of Ofloxacin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Two Low-Cost Colorimetric Methods: Resazurin and Nitrate Reductase Assays. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2005; 43(4): 1612–1616. [Download]

L. A. Solis, S. S. Shin, L. L. Han, F. Llanos, M. Stowell and A. Sloutsky. Validation of a rapid method for detection of M. tuberculosis resistance to isoniazid and rifampin in Lima, Peru. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2005; 9(7):760–764. [Download]

Humberto R. Musa, Marta Ambroggi, Alejandro Souto, and K. A. Kristian Ängeby. Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a Nitrate Reductase Assay Applied Directly on Microscopy-Positive Sputum Samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2005; 43(7): 3159–3161. [Download]

Anandi Martina,T, Ernesto Montorob, Dihadenys Lemusb, Norberto Simbolic, Nora Morcillod, Maritza Velascoe, Jose´ Chaucaf, Lucý´a Barrerac, Viviana Ritaccoc, Francoise Portaelsa, Juan Carlos Palominoa. Multicenter evaluation of the nitrate reductase assay for drug resistance detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2005; 63: 145– 150. [Link]

Manoj Kumara, Inshad Ali Khana, Vijashoor Vermaa, Narender Kalyanb, Giulam Nabi Qazia. Rapid, inexpensive MIC determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by using microplate nitrate reductase assay. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2005; 53: 121–124. [Link]

Ahmet Yilmaz Coban, Asuman Birinci, Bora Ekinci and Belma Durupinar. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nitrate reductase assay. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2004; 24: 106–108. [Link]

K. A. Kristian Ängeby, Lisbeth Klintz, and Sven E. Hoffner. Rapid and Inexpensive Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a Nitrate Reductase Assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002; 40(2): 553–555. [Download]

General

Sven Malm,Yvonne Tiffert,Julia Micklinghoff, Sonja Schultze, Insa Joost, Isabel Weber, Sarah Horst, Birgit Ackermann, Mascha Schmidt, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Stefan Ehlers, Robert Geffers, Jens Reuther and Franz-Christoph Bange. The roles of the nitrate reductase NarGHJI, the nitrite reductase NirBD and the response regulator GlnR in nitrate assimilation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiology, 2009; 155:1332–1339. [Download]

Marion Stermann, Ludwig Sedlacek, Silvia Maass, and Franz-Christoph Bange. A Promoter Mutation Causes Differential Nitrate Reductase Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Journal of Bacteriology, 2004; 186(9): 2856–2861. [Download]

Marion Stermann, Antje Bohrssen, Catharina Diephaus, Silvia Maass, and Franz-Christoph. Polymorphic Nucleotide within the Promoter of Nitrate Reductase (NarGHJI), Is Specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003, 41(7): 3252–3259. [Download]

Stefan Panaiotov, Todor Kantardjiev. Nitrate Reductase Assay for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002; 40(10): 3881–3882. [Download]

Nancy G. Warren, Barbara A. Body, and Harry P. Dalton. An Improved Reagent for Mycobacterial Nitrate Reductase Tests. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1983; 18(3): 546-549. [Download]

Anno S. Lampe. Nonliquid Reagent for Detecting Nitrate Reduction. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1981; 14(4): 452-454. [Download]

Maria L. Escotot and Isabel N. De Kantor. Nitrate Reductase Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in the Presence of Electron Donors. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1978; 7(6): 601-602. [Download]


Colorimetric Redox Indicator Method

Commercial Methods

Anandi Martin, Howard Takiff, Peter Vandamme, Jean Swings, Juan Carlos Palomino and Francoise Portaels. A new rapid and simple colorimetric method to detect pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using nicotinamide. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2006;58 : 327–331. [Download]

Dihadenys Lemus, Anandi Martin, Ernesto Montoro, Francoise Portaels and Juan Carlos Palomino. Rapid alternative methods for detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2004;54: 130–133. [Download]

J.C. Palomino, F. Portaels. Simple Procedure for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using a Commercial Colorimetic Assay. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 1999 ; 18: 380–383. [Download]

L. A. Collins, M. N. Torrero, and S. G. Franzblau. Green Fluorescent Protein Reporter Microplate Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1998; 42(2) : 344–347. [Download]

Scott G. Franzblau, Richard S. Witzig, James C. Mclaughlin, Patricia Torres, Guillermo Madico, Antonio Hernandez, Michelle T. Degnan, Mary B. Cook, Virginia K. Quenzer, Robert M. Ferguson and Robert H. Gilman. Rapid, Low-Technology MIC Determination with Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates by Using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1998; 36(2): 362–366. [Download]

Lisa A. Collins and Scott G. Franzblau. Microplate Alamar Blue Assay versus BACTEC 460 System for High-Throughput Screening of Compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1997;41(5) : 1004–1009. [Download]

Non Commercial Methods

Agustina I. de la Iglesia, Emma J. Stella, and He´ctor R. Morbidoni. Comparison of the Performances of Two In-House Rapid Methods for Antitubercular Drug Susceptibility Testing. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009; 53(2): 808–810. [Download]

Dissou Affolabi, N’Dira Sanoussi, Mathieu Odoun, Anandi Martin, Louis Koukpemedji, Juan Carlos Palomino, Luc Kestens, Se´verin Anagonou1 and Francoise Portaels. Rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Cotonou (Benin) using two low-cost colorimetric methods: resazurin and nitrate reductase assays. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2008; 57: 1024–1027. [Download]

Parissa Farnia, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Foroozan Mohammadi, Payam Tabarsei, Poopak Farnia, Ali Reza Mohammadzadeh, Parvaneh Baghei, Mohammad Varahram, Sven Hoffner, and Ali Akbar Velayati. Colorimetric Detection of Multidrug-Resistant or Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis by Use of Malachite Green Indicator Dye. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008; 46(2): 796–799. [Download]

Karine O. Sanchotene, Andrea von Groll1, Daniela Ramos, Ana B. Scholante, Gunther. Honscha, Mariana Valença, Carlos J. Scaini, Pedro E.A. da Silva. Comparative Evaluation of the Nitrate Reductase Assay and the Resazurin Microtitre Assay for Drug Susceptibility Testing Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis against First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 2008; 39:16-20. [Download]

Brian Leonard, Jorge Coronel, Mark Siedner, Louis Grandjean, Luz Caviedes, Pilar Navarro, Robert H. Gilman, and David A. J. Moore. Inter- and Intra-Assay Reproducibility of Microplate Alamar Blue Assay Results for Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, Streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin, and Capreomycin Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008; 46(10): 3526–3529. [Download]

Raut U. Narang P, Mendiratta DK, Narang R, Deotale V. Evaluation of rapid MTT tube method for detection of drug susceptibility Mycobacterium tubercolosis to Rifampicin and Isoniazid. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2008; 26 (3): 222-27. [Download]

Neetu Kumra Taneja and Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi. Resazurin reduction assays for screening of anti-tubercular compounds against dormant and actively growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2007; 60: 288–293. [Download]

J. A. Chauca, J-C. Palomino, H. Guerra. Evaluation of the accuracy of the microplate Alamar Blue assay for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Peru. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2007;11(7):820–822. [Download]

N. Rivoire, P. Ravololonandriana, T. Rasolonavalona, A. Martin, F. Portaels, H. Ramarokoto,V. Rasolofo Razanamparany. Evaluation of the resazurin assay for the detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Madagascar. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2007; 11(6):683–688. [Download]

P. A. da Silva, M. M. S. Boffo, I. G. de Mattos, A. B. S. Silva, J. C. Palomino, Martin and H. E. Takiff. Comparison of redox and D29 phage methods for detection of isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 2006; 12: 285-298. [Download]

Farida Nateche, Anandi Martin, Saliha Baraka, Juan Carlos Palomino, Safia Khaled and Francoise Portaels. Application of the resazurin microtitre assay for detection of multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Algiers. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2006; 55: 857–860. [Download]

S. Lee , D.H. Kong , S.H. Yun , K.R. Lee , K.P. Lee , S.G. Franzblau , E.Y. Lee , C.L. Chang. Evaluation of a modified antimycobacterial susceptibility test using Middlebrook 7H10 agar containing 2,3-diphenyl-5-thienyl-(2)-tetrazolium chloride. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2006; 66: 548–551. [Link]

Alireza Mohammadzadeh, Parisa Farnia, Kiarash Ghazvini, Mahdi Behdani, Tahereh Rashed1 and Javad Ghanaat. Rapid and low-cost colorimetric method using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride for detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2006; 55: 1657–1659. [Download]

A.Y. Coban C. Cekic Cihan K. Bilgin M. Uzun A. Akgunes E. Cetinkaya B. Durupinar. Rapid Susceptibility Test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid and Rifampin with Resazurin Method in Screw-Cap Tubes. Journal of Chemotherapy, 2006; 18:140-143. [Link]

Ernesto Montoro, Dihadenys Lemus, Miguel Echemendia, Anandi Martin, Francoise Portaels and Juan Carlos Palomino. Comparative evaluation of the nitrate reduction assay, the MTT test, and the resazurin microtitre assay for drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2005; 55: 500–505. [Download]

Martin, N. Morcillo, D. Lemus, E. Montoro, M. A. da Silva Telles, N. Simboli, M. Pontino, T. Porras, C. León, M. Velasco, L. Chacon, L. Barrera, V. Ritacco, F. Portaels, J. C. Palomino. Multicenter study of MTT and resazurin assays for testing susceptibility to first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2005; 9(8):901–906. [Download]

Anandi Martin, Juan Carlos Palomino, and Francoise Portaels. Rapid Detection of Ofloxacin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Two Low-Cost Colorimetric Methods: Resazurin and Nitrate Reductase Assays. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2005; 43(4) : 1612–1616. [Download]

Roberto S. Reis, Ivan Neves, Jr., Sergio L. S. Lourenc¸ Leila S. Fonseca and Maria Cristina S. Lourenc. Comparison of Flow Cytometric and Alamar Blue Tests with the Proportional Method for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Rifampin and Isoniazid. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004;42(5): 2247–2248. [Download]

Parissa Farnia, Foroazan Mohammadi, Mehdi Mirsaedi, Abolhasan Zia Zarife, Javad Tabatabee, Katayoon Bahadori, Muslem Bahadori, Mohammad Reza Masjedi and Ali Akbar Velayati. Application of Oxidation-Reduction Assay for Monitoring Treatment of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(7): 43324–3325. [Download]

Getahun Abate, Abraham Aseffa, Alemayehu Selassie, Solomon Goshu, Bekele Fekade, Dawit WoldeMeskal, and Hakan Mio¨rner. Direct Colorimetric Assay for Rapid Detection of Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(2): 871–873. [Download]

Alessandro De Logu, Maria Luisa Pellerano, Adriana Sanna, Maria Cristina Pusceddu, Patrizia Uda, Barbara Saddi. Comparison of the susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the XTT colorimetric method and the NCCLS standards method. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2003; 21: 244 – 250. [Link]

Elena Banfi, Giuditta Scialino and Carlo Monti-Bragadin. Development of a microdilution method to evaluate Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2003; 52: 796–800. [Download]

Anandi Martin, Mirtha Camacho, Francoise Portaels, and Juan Carlos Palomino. Resazurin Microtiter Assay Plate Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibilities to Second-Line Drugs: Rapid, Simple, and Inexpensive Method. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2003; 47(11) : 3616–3619. [Download]

J. Luna-Herrera • G. Martinez-Cabrera, R. Parra-Maldonado • J. A. Enciso-Moreno, J. Torres-Lopez • F. Quesada-Pascual, R. Delgadillo-Polanco • S. G. Franzblau. Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves to Assess the Performance of a Microdilution Assay for Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2003; 22:21- 27. [Download]

De Logu A, Borgna R, Uda P, Sanna A, Pellerano ML, Saddi B. The 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay as rapid colorimetric method for determination of antibiotic susceptibility of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in liquid medium. Clin Lab., 2003;49(7-8):357-65. [Link]

Juan-Carlos Palomino, Anandi Martin, Mirtha Camacho, Humberto Guerra, Jean Swings, and Francoise Portaels. Resazurin Microtiter Assay Plate: Simple and Inexpensive Method for Detection of Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2002;46(8) : 2720–2722. [Download]

Luz Caviedes, Jose Delgado and Robert H. Gilman. Tetrazolium Microplate Assay as a Rapid and Inexpensive Colorimetric Method for Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002;40(5): 1873–1874. [Download]

Sungkanuparph S, Pracharktam R, Thakkinstian A, Buabut B, Kiatatchasai W. Correlation between susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by microtiter plate alamar blue assay and clinical outcomes. J Med Assoc Thai, Jul; 2002;85(7):820-4. [Link]

S. Foongladda, D. Roengsanthia, W. Arjrattanakool, C. Chuchottaworn, A. Chaiprasert, S. G. Franzblau. Rapid and simple MTT method for rifampicin and isoniazid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2002;6(12):1118–1122. [Download]

R. Ajay Kumar, K. Laiza Paul, R. Indulakshmi, Y. K. Manju, K. Vinod Kumar, P. Ayyappan, M. Joshi and Sathish Mundayoor. Analysis of drug susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from Thiruvananthapuram using Alamar Blue assay. Current Science, 2001;80(1) : 70 – 73. [Download]

De Logu, P. Uda, M.L. Pellerano, M.C. Pusceddu, B. Saddi, M.L. Schivo. Comparison of Two Rapid Colorimetric Methods for Determining Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Rifampin, Isoniazid, and Streptomycin in Liquid Medium. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2001;20 : 33–39. [Download]

Roognapa Pracharktam, Kanung Angkananukool and ASDS Vibhagool. In Vitro Susceptibility testing of Levofloacin and Ofloxacin by Microtiter plate Alamar blue against multidrug and non multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Thailand. Journal of Medical Association Thailand, September, 2001; 1241- 1244. [Link]

Robert N. Mshana, Genet Tadesse, Getahun Abate and Håkan MioRner. Use of 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl Tetrazolium Bromide for Rapid Detection of Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1998;36(5): 1214–1219. [Download]

G. Abate, R. N. Mshana, H. Miörner. Evaluation of a colorimetric assay based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) for rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 1998;2(12):1011–1016. [Download]

David M. Yajko, Janusz J. Madej, Michael V. Lancaster, Cynthia A. Sanders,V. Louise Cawthon, Betty Gee, Anna Babst And W. Keith Hadley. Colorimetric Method For Determining MICS Of Antimicrobial Agents For Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1995;33(9) : 2324–2327. [Download]

General

Anandi Martin, Francoise Portaels and Juan Carlos Palomino. Colorimetric redox-indicator methods for the rapid detection of multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2007;59 : 175–183. [Download]

Jorge Castro-Garza, Hugo B. Barrios-Garcýa, Delia Elva Cruz-Vega, Salvador Said-Ferna´ndez, Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Carmen A. Molina-Torres and Lucio Vera-Cabrera. Use of a colorimetric assay to measure differences in cytotoxicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Journal of Medical Microbiology,2007;56 : 733–737. [Download]


MODS

MODS

Mirko Zimic, Abner Velasco, German Comina, Jorge Coronel, Patricia Fuentes, Carmen G. Luna, Patricia Sheen, Robert H. Gilman and David A. J. Moore. Development of Low-Cost Inverted Microscope to Detect Early Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MODS Culture. PLoS ONE, 2010; 5(3): e9577. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009577. [Download]

Jessica Minion and Madhukar Pai. Expanding the Role of the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay in Tuberculosis and HIV Management. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2010;50:997–999. [Download]

Krishna P. Reddy, Mark F. Brady, Robert H. Gilman, Jorge Coronel, Marcos N˜ avincopa, Eduardo Ticona, Gonzalo Chavez, Eduardo Sa´nchez, Christian Rojas, Lely Solari, Jorge Valencia, Yvett Pinedo, Carlos Benites, Jon S. Friedland, and David A. J. Moore. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay for Tuberculosis Screening before Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in HIV-Infected Persons. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2010; 50:988–996. [Download]

Dang Thi Minh Ha, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Marcel Wolbers, Tran Ngoc Duong, Nguyen Dang Quang, Tran Thi Van Thinh, Le Thi Hong Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Anh, Tran Van Quyet, Nguyen Thi Bich Tuyen, Vo Thi Ha, Jeremy Day, Hoang Thi Thanh Hang, Vo Sy Kiet, Nguyen Thi Nho, Dai Viet Hoa, Nguyen Huy Dung, Nguyen Huu Lan, Jeremy Farrar, Maxine Caws. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay (MODS) for Early Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Children. PLoS ONE, 2009; 4(12);e8341. [Download]

Rose A. Devasia, Amondrea Blackman, Carolyn May, Svetlana Eden, Teresa Smith, Nancy Hooper, Fernanda Maruri, Charles Stratton, Ayumi Shintani and Timothy R. Sterling. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an assessment of MGIT 960, MODS and nitrate reductase assay and fluoroquinolone cross-resistance.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2009;63 : 1173–1178. [Download]

W. H. Bae, A. Salas, M. F. Brady,J. Coronel, C. G. L. Colombo, B. Castro, R. H. Gilman, D. A. J. Moore. Reducing the string test intra-gastric downtime for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2008;12(12):1436–1440. [Download]

G. S. Ejigu, Y. Woldeamanuel, N. S. Shah, M. Gebyehu, A. Selassie, E. Lemma. Microscopic-observation drug susceptibility assay provides rapid and reliable identification of MDR-TB. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2008;12(3):332–337. [Download]

Marco Tovar, Mark J. Siedner, Robert H. Gilman, Carlos Santillan, Luz Caviedes, Teresa Valencia, Oswaldo Jave, A. Rod Escombe, David A. J. Moore, and Carlton A. Evans. Improved Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis Using the Microscopic- Observation Drug-Susceptibility Technique. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2008; 46:909–12. [Download]

C. J. Nic Fhogartaigh, S. Vargas-Prada,V. Huancaré, S. Lopez,J. Rodríguez, D. A. J. Moore. Physician-initiated courtesy MODS testing for TB and MDR-TB diagnosis and patient management. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2008;12(5):555–560. [Download]

Mayra Arias, Fernanda C. Q. Mello, Ada Pavon, Anna Grazia Marsico, Carlos Alvarado-Ga´lvez, Senia Rosales,Carlos Leonardo Carvalho Pessoˆa, Melly Pe´rez, Monica K. Andrade, Afranio L. Kritski, Leila S. Fonseca, Richard E. Chaisson, Michael E. Kimerling, and Susan E. Dorman. Clinical Evaluation of the Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay for Detection of Tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2007;44:674–80. [Download]

Fernanda C. Q. Mellow, Mayra S. Arias, Sonia Rosales, Anna Grazia Marsico,Ada Pavón, Carlos Alvarado-Gálvez, Carlos Leonardo Carvalho Pessôa, Melly Pérez, Monica K. Andrade, Afranio L. Kritski, Leila S. Fonseca, Richard E. Chaisson, Michael E. Kimerling, Susan E. Dorman. Clinical evaluation of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to isoniazid or rifampin. J. Clin. Microbiol, 2007;45(10): 3387-3389. [Download]

Girum Shiferaw, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Mekdes Gebeyehu, Feven Girmachew, Daniel Demessie, and Eshetu Lemma. Evaluation of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay for Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007; 45(4): 1093–1097. [Download]

Ruvandhi Nathavitharana, Jorge Coronel, David A. J. Moore. Solar Disinfection of MODS Mycobacterial Cultures in Resource-Poor Settings. PLoS ONE,2007(10): e1100 ; 1-4 ,www.plosone.org. [Download]

Maxine Caws, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Estee Torok, James Campbell, Do Dang Anh Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen van Vinh Chau,Nguyen Tran Chinh, Jeremy Farrar. Evaluation of the MODS Culture Technique for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis. PLoS ONE, 2007(11), e1173,1-11, www.plosone.org. [Download]

David AJ Moore. Future prospects for the MODS assay in the multidrug resistant Tuberculosis diagnosis. Future Microbiology, 2007; 2(2): 97- 101. [Download]

Richard A. Oberhelman, Giselle Soto-Castellares, Luz Caviedes, Maria E. Castillo, Patricia Kissinger, David A.J. Moore, Carlton Evans, Robert H. Gilman. Improved Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis From Children Using the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Method. PEDIATRICS, 2006;118(1) : 100-107. [Download]

David A.J. Moorea, Luz Caviedesc, Robert H. Gilmana, Jorge Coronelc, Fanny Arenasc, Doris LaChirae, Cayo Salazare, Juan Carlos Saraviaf, Richard A. Oberhelmanc, Maria-Graciela Hollm-Delgadob, A. Roderick Escombea, Carlton A.W. Evansa, Jon S. Friedlanda. Infrequent MODS TB culture cross-contamination in a high-burden resource-poor setting. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2006; 56: 35–43. [Download]

David A.J. Moore, Carlton A.W. Evans,, Robert H. Gilman, Luz Caviedes, Jorge Coronel, Aldo Vivar , Eduardo Sanchez, Yvette Piñedo, Juan Carlos Saravia, Cayo Salazar, Richard Oberhelman, Maria-Graciela Hollm-Delgado, Doris LaChira, A. Roderick Escombe, and Jon S. Friedland. Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay for the Diagnosis of TB. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2006; 355(15): 1539 – 1550. [Download]

David A. J. Moore, Daniel Mendoza, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A. W. Evans, María-Graciela Hollm Delgado, Jose Guerra, Luz Caviedes, Daniel Vargas, Eduardo Ticona, Jaime Ortiz, Giselle Soto, Jose Serpa, and the Tuberculosis Working Group in Peru. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay, a Rapid, Reliable Diagnostic Test for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Suitable for Use in Resource-Poor Settings. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(10) : 4432–4437. [Download]

Walter G. Park, William R. Bishai, Richard E. Chaisson, and Susan E. Dorman. Performance of the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay in Drug Susceptibility Testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002;40(12) :4750–4752. [Download]

Luz Caviedes,Tien-Shun Lee, Robert H. Gilman, Patricia Sheen, Emily Spellman, Ellen H. Lee, Douglas E. Berg, Sonia Montenegro-James and the Tuberculosis Working Group In Peru. Rapid, Efficient Detection and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum by Microscopic Observation of Broth Cultures. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38(3): 1203–1208. [Download]

General

Freddie Bwanga, Sven Hoffner, Melles Haile and Moses L Joloba. Direct susceptibility testing for multi drug resistant tuberculosis: A meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Disease, 2009; 9:67doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-67. [Download]


Thin Layer Agar

Anandi Martin, Krista Fissette, Francis Varaine, Françoise Portaels, Juan Carlos Palomino. Thin layer agar compared to BACTEC MGIT 960 for early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2009; 78: 107–108. [Link]

A. Martin, F. Paasch, Von Groll, K. Fissette, P. Almeida, F. Varaine, F. Portaels, J-C. Palomino. Thin-layer agar for detection of resistance to rifampicin, ofloxacin and kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2009;13(10):1301–1304. [Download]

Anandi Martin, Peter Munga Waweru, Fred Babu Okatch, Naureen Amondi Ouma, Laurence Bonte, Francis Varaine , And Françoise Portaels. Implementation of the thin layer agar for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting in Homa Bay, Kenya. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2009; 47(8): 2632–2634. [Download]

J. Robledo,G. I. Mejia,L. Paniagua, A. Martin, A. Guzmán. Rapid detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the direct thin-layer agar method. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2008;12(12):1482–1484. [Download]

Pedro Eduardo Almeida da Silva, Fernanda Wiese, Maria Marta Santos Boffo, Andréa von Groll,Ivo Gomes de Mattos, Glória Mejia, Jaime Robledo. Microcolony Detection in Thin Layer Culture as an Alternative Method for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Clinical Samples. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 2007; 38:421-423. [Download]

J. A. Robledo, G. I. Mejía,N. Morcillo, L. Chacón, M. Camacho, J. Luna, J. Zurita, A. Bodon, M. Velasco,J. C. Palomino, A. Martin, F. Portaels. Evaluation of a rapid culture method for tuberculosis diagnosis: a Latin American multicenter study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2006; 10(6):613–619. [Download]

Gloria Isabel Mejía, Angela Guzmán, Carlos Andrés Agudelo, Hugo Trujillo, Jaime Robledo.
Cinco años de experiencia con el agar de capa delgada para el diagnóstico rápido de
Tuberculosis.
Biomédica 2004; 24(Supl.): 52-9. [Download]

G. I. Mejia, L. Castrillon, H. Trujillo, J. A. Robledo. Microcolony detection in 7H11 thin layer culture is an alternative for rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 1999;3(2):138–142. [Download]

R Idigoras, E. P6rez-Trallero, M. Alcorta, C. Guti6rrez, I. Mufioz-Baroja. Rapid Detection of Tuberculous and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria by Microscopic observation of Growth on Middlebrook 7Hll Agar. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis, 1995; 14: 6-10. [Download]

T. Schaberg, B. Reichert, T. Schülin, H. Lode, H. Mauch. Rapid drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using conventional solid media. Eur Respir J, 1995; 8: 1688–1693. [Download]

David F. Welch, Arthur P. Guruswamy, Sandra J. Sides, Charles H. Shaw And Mary J. R. Gilchrist. Timely Culture for Mycobacteria Which Utilizes a Microcolony. Method Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1993;31(8) ; 2178-2184. [Download]


VersaTREK Method

Francisco Quin Ones Falconi, Lourdes Infante Sua Rez, Manuel De Jesu S Castillejos LoPez & Cecilia Garci A Sancho. Comparison of the VersaTREK system and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for the recovery of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2008; 40: 49-53. [Link]

V. J. LaBombardi, R. Katariwala and G. Pipia. The identification of mycobacteria from solid media and directly from VersaTREK Myco bottles using the Sherlock Mycobacteria Identification HPLC system. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2006; 12: 478–481. [Download]

Claudio Piersimoni, Armando Olivieri, Luca Benacchio and Claudio Scarparo. Current Perspectives on Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex: the Automated Nonradiometric Systems. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006; 44(1): 20–28. [Download]


Ogawa Kudoh Method

C. Rivas, C. Coitinho, V. Dafond, M. Corbo and M. Baldjian. Performance of the Ogawa-Kudoh method for isolation of Mycobacteria in a laboratory with large-scale workload. Revista Argentina de Microbiología, 2010; 42: 87-90. [Download]

Rossana C. Jaspe, Yeimy M. Rojas, Lalis A. Flores, E. Sofia Toro, Howard Takiff and Jacobus H. de Waard. Evaluation of the Kudoh swab method for the culturing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rural areas. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2009; 14(4): 468–471. [Download]

G. Honscha, A. Von Groll, M. Valença, D. F. Ramos, K. Sanchotene, C. J. Scaini, M. O. Ribeiro and P. E. A. da Silva. The laboratory as a tool to qualify tuberculosis diagnosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2008; 12(2):218–220. [Download]

Julia Ignez Salem, Clarice Maia Carvalho, Mauricio Morishi Ogusku, Rosália Maia and Antonio Ruffino-Netto. PKO – Alternative method for isolating Mycobacteria from sputum. Acta Amazonoica, 2007; 37(3): 419 – 424. [Download]

Ivo Gomes de Mattos, Marta Osório Ribeiro, Isabel Cristina de O. Netto and Pedro Alves d’Azevedo. Tuberculosis: A Study of 111 Cases in an Area of High Prevalence in the Extreme South of Brazil. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2006; 10(3):194-198. [Download]

Martha I Murcia-Aranguren , Jorge E Gómez-Marin, Fernando S Alvarado, José G Bustillo, Ellen de Mendivelson, Bertha Gómez, Clara I León,William A Triana, Erwing A Vargas and Edgar Rodríguez. Frequency of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV infected patients from Bogota, Colombia. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2001; 1(21): http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/1/21. [Download]


Flow Cytometry

C. Pina-Vaz, S. Costa-de-Oliveira and A. G. Rodrigues. Safe susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosisby flow cytometry with the fluorescent nucleic acid stain SYTO 16. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2005; 54:77–81. [Download]

Y. Akselbanda,T, C. Cabrala, D.S. Shapirob,c, P. McGrath. Rapid mycobacteria drug susceptibility testing using Gel Microdrop (GMD) Growth Assay and flow cytometry. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2005;62 : 181– 197. [Link]

Roberto S. Reis, Ivan Neves, Jr., Sergio L. S. Lourenc¸ Leila S. Fonseca and Maria Cristina S. Lourenc. Comparison of Flow Cytometric and Alamar Blue Tests with the Proportional Method for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Rifampin and Isoniazid. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004; 42(5): 2247–2248. [Download]

Andrea V. Moore, Scott M. Kirk, Steven M. Callister, Gerald H. Mazurek, and Ronald F. Schell. Safe Determination of Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Anti mycobacterial Agents by Flow Cytometry. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999; 37(1): 479–483. [Download]

Scott M. Kirk, Ronald F. Schell, Andrea V. Moore, Steven M. Callister, and Gerald H. Mazurek. Flow Cytometric Testing of Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates to Ethambutol, Isoniazid, and Rifampin in 24 Hours. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1998; 36(6): 1568–1573. [Download]

Shannon E. Bownds, Terrence A. Kurzynski, Mark A. Norden, Joanne L. Dufek, And Ronald F. Schell. Rapid Susceptibility Testing for Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria Using Flow Cytometry. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1996; 34(6): 1386–1390. [Download]

Mark A. Norden, Terrence A. Kurzynski, Shannon E. Bownds,Steven M. Callister, And Ronald F. Schell. Rapid Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra) by Flow Cytometry. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1995; 33(5): 1231–1237. [Download]


Miscellaneous

Agar based method

Murli L. Mathur, F, Jyoti Gaur, Ruchika Sharma and Aruna Solanki. Rapid culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on blood agar in resource limited setting. Danish Medical Bulletin, 2009; 56(4): 208-210. [Download]

AY. Coban, C. C. Cihan, K. Bilgin, M. Uzun, A. Akgunes, E. Cetinkaya and B. Durupinar. Blood agar for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against first-line drugs. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2006; 10(4): 450–453. [Download]

Ahmet Yilmaz Coban, Kemal Bilgin, Meltem Uzun, Nuriye Tasdelen Fisgin, Alper Akgunes, Cigdem Cekic Cihan, Asuman Birinci and Belma Durupinar. Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid and Rifampin on Blood Agar. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2005; 43(4): 1930–1931. [Download]

E test

Ahmet Yilmaz Coban, Kemal Bilgin,Meltem Uzun, Alper Akgunes, Anne Yusof and Belma Durupinar. Comparative Study for Determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibility to First and Second-Line Antituberculosis Drugs by the E test Using 7H11, Blood, and Chocolate Agar. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008; 46(12): 4095–4098. [Download]

Sumathi Muralidhar & Lakshmi Srivastava. Evaluation of three methods to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Indian J Med Res, 2004; 120 : 463-467. [Download]

Manzour Hernando Hazbo N, Maria Del Socorro Orozco, Luz Angela Labrada, Rafael Tovar, Kristen A. Weigle and Audrey Wanger. Evaluation of E test for Susceptibility Testing of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000; 38 (12): 4599–4603. [Download]

Slide culture/DST

Hamid Salim, K. J. M. Aung, M. A. Hossain and A. Van Deun. Early and rapid microscopy-based diagnosis of true treatment failure and MDR-TB. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2006; 10(11):1248–1254. [Download]

Celso Luíz Cardoso, Luiz Roberto Bigão Giacomelli, César Helbel, Janete Jordão Sant.Ana, Fátima Moreira Martins and Angela Maria Werneck Barreto. Survival of Tubercle Bacilli in Heat-fixed and Stained Sputum Smears. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 2001; 96(2): 277-280. [Download]

P.Narang, Sangeeta Dey and DK Mendiratta. Paraffin Slide Culture Technique for “Baiting” Non Tuberculous Mycobacteria. Ind. J. Tub, 2000; 47:219-221. [Download]

T. Yamamoto, R. Amitani, K. Suzuki, E. Tanaka, T. Murayama and F. Kuze. In Vitro Bactericidal and In Vivo Therapeutic Activities of a New Rifamycin Derivative, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1996; 40(2): 426–428. [Download]

P.R. Gupta, B. Singhal, T.N. Sharma and R.B. Gupta. A Modified Slide Culture Technique for Quick Drug Sensitivity Testing of M. Tuberculosis. Ind. J. Tub., 1992; 39: 113-116. [Download]

Anna Csillag. Cellular Morphology of Form 2 Mycobacteria in Slide Culture. J .gen. MicroMol, 1963; 30: 21-27. [Download]

P. J. Collard and P. G. Mann. Slide Culture as a Means of Appraising the Streptomycin Sensitivity of Tubercle Bacilli in Sputum. J. clin. Path, 1953; 6: 266-272. [Download]

Sydney D. Rubbo and Dawn M. Morris. A Slide-Culture Technique for Determining Streptomycin Sensitivity of M. Tuberculosis In Sputum. J. clin. Path, 1951; 4:173-182. [Download]

Martin M. Cummings, Margaret C. Drummond and Harriet B. Schwartz. A Slide Culture Method for Streptomycin Sensitivity Testing, Atlanta, Georgia. Dis Chest, 1950; 17: 202-205. [Download]

Anopore technique

C. J. Ingham, A. B. Ayad, K. Nolsen, B. Mulder. Rapid drug susceptibility testing of mycobacteria by culture on a highly porous ceramic support. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2008;12(6):645–650. [Download]

Other Methods

R Set, S Rokade, S Agrawal and J Shastri. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing Mycobacteria by microdilution – Experience of a tertiary care centre. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2010; 28(1): 48-50. [Link]

Alice L. den Hertog, Dennis W. Visser, Colin J. Ingham, Frank H. A. G. Fey, Paul R. Klatser and Richard M. Anthony. Simplified Automated Image Analysis for Detection and Phenotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Porous Supports by Monitoring Growing Microcolonies. PLoS ONE, 2010; 5(6): e11008:www.plosone.org. [Download]

Louis Grandjean, Laura Martin, Robert H. Gilman, Teresa Valencia, Beatriz Herrera, Willi Quino, Eric Ramos, Maribel Rivero, Rosario Montoya, A. Roderick Escombe David Coleman, Denis Mitchison, and Carlton A. Evans. Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Multidrug Resistance Testing by Direct Sputum Culture in Selective Broth without Decontamination or Centrifugation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008;46(7) : 2339–2344. [Download]


Statistics

Tania B. Huedo-Medina, Julio Sánchez-Meca, Fulgencio Marín-Martínez, and Juan Botella. Assessing Heterogeneity in Meta-Analysis: Q Statistic or I2 Index? Psychological Methods, 2006; 11(2): 193 – 206. [Download]

Javier Zamora, Victor Abraira, Alfonso Muriel, Khalid Khan and Arri Coomarasamy. Meta-DiSc: a software for meta-analysis of test accuracy data. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2006; 6:31. [Download]

S. D. Walter. The partial area under the summary ROC curve. Statist. Med., 2005; 24:2025–2040. [Link]

Johannes B. Reitsmaa, Afina S. Glasa, Anne W.S. Rutjesa, Rob J.P.M. Scholtenb, Patrick M. Bossuyta, Aeilko H. Zwindermana. Bivariate analysis of sensitivity and specificity produces informative summary measures in diagnostic reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 2005; 58: 982–990. [Link]

Madhukar Pai, Michael McCulloch, Wayne Enanoria, John M Colford Jr. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test evaluations: What’s behind the scenes? Evid Based Med, 2004;9 :101-103 doi:10.1136/ebm.9.4.101. [Download]

Madhukar Pai, Michael Mcculloch, Jennifer D. Gorman, Nitika Pai, Wayne Enanoria, Gail Kennedy, Prathap Tharyan, John M. Colford, Jr. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: An illustrated, step-by-step guide, The National Medical Journal of India, 2004; 17(2): 86-95. [Download]

Penny Whiting, Anne WS Rutjes, Johannes B Reitsma, Patrick MM Bossuyt and Jos Kleijnen. The development of QUADAS: a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2003; 3: 25 doi:10.1186/1471-2288-3-25. [Download]

S. D. Walter and Petra Macaskill. SROC Curve, Encyclopedia of Biopharmaceutical Statistics 2003; ISBN: 978-0-8247-4261-4 (hardback) 978-0-8247-4262-1 (electronic). Original Publication Date: 23 April 2003. Last Updated: 23 April 2007. Subjects: Biopharmaceutics; Statistics; Publisher: Informa Healthcare. DOI: 10.1081/E-EBS 120024189. [Download]

Jeroen G. Lijmer, Patrick M. M. Bossuyt and Siem H. Heisterkamp. Exploring sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests. Statist. Med., 2002; 21:1525–1537. [Link]

S. D. Walter. Properties of the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve for diagnostic test data. Statist. Med., 2002; 21:1237–1256. [Download]

Jonathan J Deeks. Systematic reviews of evaluations of diagnostic and screening tests. BMJ, 2001; 323: 157-62. [Download]

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